James M Hall
The Iwate University Faculty of Education
Department of English Education

Note to the Reader

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Thank you for visiting my vocabulary notebook page. This web page serves as an outline of a couple of studies I have done on vocabulary notebooks. Please keep in mind that it is a work in progress and I am sure that there are errors and inaccuracies. I have put this page on the internet as a reference for other teachers, and I will be continuously making changes over the next few months. If you have any questions or comments, please send me an e-mail. I also have a blog and personal home page, please visit them!

Table of Contents

1.0 The Reason I Decided to Investigate and Use Vocabulary Notebooks
2.0 The Subjects and Time Periods of this Project
3.0 A Review of the Literature on Vocabulary Learning and Note taking Relevant to Vocabulary Notebooks
3.1 Highlights on the Literature of the Word Learning Strategies and Characteristic of Word Knowledge of Japanese Learners of English
3.11 Word Learning Strategies of Japanese Students
3.12 Note-taking and L2 Learning
3.13 Vocabulary notebooks
3.14 Implications of the literature for using vocabulary notebooks
4.0 Research Questions
4.1 The Rationale Behind Research Questions
5.0 The Style of the Vocabulary Notebook and its Implementation
5.1 The Implementation of the Vocabulary Notebook
5.2 The Style of the Notebook
6.0 Results - Answers to Questions 1 & 2
6.1 Question 1: Will learners use vocabulary notebooks, if yes, how so?
6.11 Answer to Part I
6.12 Answers to Part II
6.121 The Word Information Written Down will be Influenced by the Goal of the Class
6.122 The University Freshman Recorded More Word Information
6.123 The Keyword Strategy was the least used
6.124 Almost all entries had an L1 translation
6.125 There was a lot of variation on how students used the vocabulary notebook.
6.2 Question 2: What kind of word learning strategies might learners adopt through the implementation of vocabulary notebooks?
6.21 Vocabulary Learning Strategy Questionnaire: Description
6.22 The Results from the Questionnaire
6.221 Table of the Results
6.222 Summary of Table: Changes in strategies students use when they meet a word they do not understand:
6.2221 Changes in strategies for using dictionaries:
6.2222 Changes in Vocabulary Note-Taking Strategies:
6.2223 Changes in Memorization Strategies other than repetition
6.2224 Changes in General Word Learning Strategies
6.23 General Conclusions about the Change in Word Learning Strategies
7.0 Results - General Tips for Using Vocabulary Notebooks
7.1 Things to know before you start
7.2 Tips for using Vocabulary Notebooks in the Classroom
7.21 When Introducing the Vocabulary Notebooks
7.22 During and after the Introduction Period:
8.0 Issues for Further Investigation
9.0 Bibliography
10.0 Appendix 1: Student quotes about using vocabulary notebooks

1.0 The Reason I Decided to Investigate and Use Vocabulary Notebooks

I am a believer in quizzes. In my own personal language learning experience for both Japanese and Spanish, I had quizzes almost every day. I would come to my second language class every day having studied the words and although I forgot a lot of them after the quizzes, enough of these words eventually entered my long term memory. From last year, I started to teach an English for nurses class once a week at a nursing school and my belief on the effectiveness of quizzes began to change. In the nursing school class, I used quizzes as a way to motivate students to learn important vocabulary but this method was not as effective. Students would come to class with their notebooks and a pile of papers. Five minutes before class I would see students frantically rumbling through their papers attempting to find the word list for that week. Once they found the word list they would hurriedly try to memorize the words. Quizzes left blank blank were not unusual. In many cases, by the following week, many students had lost the previous weekfs word list so by the time the mid-term or final examination came, I would have to give students a new word list with all the words we had gstudiedh in the previous semester. Those students who kept a notebook seemed to do well on the mid-term and final exams, but those that did not performed poorly. Through this experience, I realized that many students did not know how to
  1. keep a notebook.
  2. study English words apart from learning the L1 meaning of the word.
Thus, I decided to introduce vocabulary notebooks to encourage students to:
  1. keep track of their own learning in the class so that they can recall what we did in the class and they can prepare for tests and quizzes more easily.
  2. develop strategies for learning and remembering words so that they become more effective word learners
  3. become autonomous learners. By teaching students how to become autonomous learners, I mean teaching students how to learn vocabulary effectively, encouraging students to make better use of their dictionaries and ultimately make them independent of teachers, dictionaries and textbooks (Waring, 2002). Because we do not have enough time to teach everything about a word, students have to become independent word learners.
On April of this year the project began!

2.0 The Subjects and Time Periods of this Project

Class Profiles

 

Nursing School Freshman English Class

University Freshman English Class

Students

40

21

Time Period

April to July, 2006
15 Class Periods
April to August, 2006
15 Class Periods

Objective

Teach students the kind of English they will need to use with patients in the hospital. There was an emphasis on speaking, listening, and writing.

Concentrate on the students reading and listening skills to help them use English for their university studies.

Textbook

How Are You Feeling Today?
-English for Nurses-
@q
Toni Harrington
Sebido
Stranger than Fiction
Charles M. Knudsen
Nanundo

 

Vocabulary 2000 Level Test Score
(30 Items)
Average: 16.675
SD: 3.92
Average: 23.1
SD: 3.71
I decided to try vocabulary notebooks in two different learning contexts to compare how students used them. The nursing school class consisted of 40 students and the freshman English class consisted of 21 students. The objective of the nursing school class was to teach students English necessary to use in a hospital. The objective of the freshman English class was to concentrate on the students reading and listening skills to help them use English for their university studies. To compare the two groups, I conducted the Vocabulary Levels Test originally designed by Nation (1990) and revised by Schmitt (2001). Although the test is designed to test learnersf knowledge of English vocabulary at the 2000, 3000, 5000, and 10000 word levels, that is their knowledge of the 2000, 3000, 5000, and 10000 most frequent words in English, the researcher only gave the 2000 level test to the students. One reason for giving only the 2000 level test was practical: time was limited. It was thought that this test would suffice to get an idea of studentsf basic knowledge because words from the 2000 level account for 87% of the words in an average text (Nation, 1990, cited in Beglar & Hunt, 1999, p.133). The 2000 Level test was also validated by Schmitt, Schmitt, & Clapham (2001).

3.0 A Review of the Literature on Vocabulary Learning and Note taking Relevant to Vocabulary Notebooks

3.1 Highlights on the Literature of the Word Learning Strategies and Characteristic of Word Knowledge of Japanese Learners of English

3.11 Word Learning Strategies of Japanese Students

In Schmitt (1997) it was observed that the pattern of word use strategies changes as Japanese learners get older: It was also shown that the keyword method was one of the least popular word learning strategies.
In Schmitt and Meara (1997) a study on the vocabulary knowledge of intermediate Japanese learners of English was conducted. It was found that Nakamura (2002) conducted a very detailed study on the word learning of Japanese learners. Comparing the word learning strategies of Japanese learners who differed in gender, level, and whether they were learning English in England or in Japan. Among his findings were

3.12 Note-taking and L2 Learning

Nakamura (2002, pp.46-53) reviews the literature on note taking strategies and L2 learning. Among the highlights in his review are the following:
  1. Note-taking is one of the two most frequently used strategies in L2 learning (the other repetition).
  2. In Cohen (1990, p.128) the most popular pattern was to enter the material in a notebook in the same order it was presented in class and Schmitt (1997) reports that gtaking notes in classh is one of the most used strategies by EFL learners.
  3. Higher Level learners are more likely to use more meaning-oriented note taking strategies and usage-oriented note-taking strategies.
  4. Good learners are more attentive to the various kinds of information that are related to an L2 item than poor learners (Gu, 1994).
I would like to emphasize this last point. To truly master a word the amount of information a learner must know is astounding: First they must know how the word is written, and pronounced as well as the meanings of its affixes. Next, they need to know the various forms and derivations of the word, the concept behind the word, and synonyms of the word. Lastly, they need to know the grammatical functions of the word or in what kind of patterns it occurs, collocations of the word, and constraints on the use of the word or in what contexts we can use the word and it what contexts we cannot use the word. In conclusion, for learners to use vocabulary notebooks effectively, we need to encourage them to record various information about a word, not just its meaning.
The question now is how can we encourage learners to keep a notebook that will help them develop this knowledge? To consider this, I would briefly like to review the literature on vocabulary notebooks:

3.13 Vocabulary notebooks

Vocabulary notebooks have been recommended by many writers (Allen, 1983, p.50; Gairns and Redman, 1986, pp.95-100; McCarthy, 1990, pp.127-129; Woolard, 2000, p.43-44). Schmitt & Schmitt (1995) in a much-referenced paper on vocabulary notebooks, list possible information about an L2 word that a vocabulary notebook entry can include to help students learn a word:
Possible Information that a vocabulary notebook word entry can include according to Schmitt & Schmitt(1995)
  1. an L1 translation
  2. keyword illustration
  3. stylistic note
  4. number of times heard in two days
  5. part of speech
  6. pronunciation
  7. semantic map
  8. example sentence
  9. derivative information
  10. collocations
  11. an L2 definition
They recommend that learners choose which of the previous L2 word information to include in an entry and fill in the information over time as their understanding of the word increases. They also advise that words in the notebook be recycled regularly in the classroom and that words be studied based on a memory schedule. Lastly, they give teachers a concrete plan for implementing such a notebook.
Fowle (2002) introduced vocabulary notebooks based on the Schmitt & Schmitt (op. cit) model in the language center of a secondary school in Thailand. The aim of the project was to make learners more independent language learners by teaching them how to use strategies for learning words through using vocabulary notebooks. He concluded that the vocabulary notebook was effective in helping the learners develop a number of word learning strategies and showed that 18 of 19 students wrote positive responses about the learning experience. He did not mention which word strategies (e.g. the keyword method, memorizing the L1 meaning of a word, etc.) they tended to prefer.
Kim (2002) introduced vocabulary notebooks into an extensive reading course at a university in Japan Students were encouraged to read extensively about a topic of their choice, and enter the words they did not know into their vocabulary notebook. For each entry, students wrote the word that appeared before and after the target word, the definition of the word, how many times the word appeared in a given passage, and any other notes they had. Kim did not write how students responded to the notebooks. Kim wrote that notebooks are effective as a means for gcollecting wordsh but not for memorizing words because they encourage serial learning**.
** Serial learning is when a learner uses the order in which words appear to memorize their meanings. Nation (2001) recommends that learners use vocabulary cards to memorize words, because the cards can be mixed so that serial learning is not an issue.

3.14 Implications of the literature for using vocabulary notebooks

The literature on the word learning strategies of Japanese learners and second language learner note taking strategies have the following implications for vocabulary notebooks:
  1. Learners are more likely to organize their notebook chronologically,
  2. Most vocabulary notebook entries will consist of an L2 word with its L1 equivalent
  3. Learners at a higher English level will enter more information about a word than learners at a lower English level
  4. The keyword method will not be popular among learners.
  5. Learning and writing derivations will be difficult for the students.
  6. Studying notebooks rather than word cards will encourage serial learning

4.0 Research Questions:

To investigate the above implications and add to the practical suggestions on how to use vocabulary notebooks in the English class, I decided to investigate the following research questions:
  1. Will learners use vocabulary notebooks? If yes, how so?
  2. What kinds of word learning strategies might learners adopt through the implementation of vocabulary notebooks?
  3. From this project, what will be the challenges in implementing vocabulary notebooks and what kind of tips can I give teachers who want to use vocabulary notebooks in their classes?

4.1 The Rationale behind the Research Questions

The Schmitt & Schmitt (1995) study gives the teacher many useful suggestions on how to use vocabulary notebooks. However it does not discuss which information their students actually tended to enter in their vocabulary notebooks. The Fowle (2002) study reveals some learning strategies that students learned but like the Schmitt study does not elaborate on which kinds of word information students entered in their vocabulary notebook. The Kim (2002) study does not discuss how learners respond to using the notebooks. It was hoped that question 1 could determine the kinds of information learners actually preferred to enter into their vocabulary notebooks. Furthermore, it was hoped that question 3 could add to some of the practical advice from the aforementioned researchers about implementing vocabulary notebooks. Lastly, it was hoped that question 2 could give some concrete answers as to specifically what kind of new learning strategies learners used together with the vocabulary notebooks.

5.0 The Style of the Vocabulary Notebook and its Implementation

5.1 The Implementation of the Vocabulary Notebook

The first week of each class I told learners to purchase an A4- sized binder with dividers, because I wanted them to keep a vocabulary notebook. In the second class, I provided learners with forms for their notebooks and said that they could supply some of the 10 kinds of information about a word show below. I told them that knowing the Japanese meaning of an English word was useful but it was not enough to truly be able to use the word. I demonstrated how to enter the information about a word and had students enter some of the words we were to learn that day into their notebooks for practice. Each week after that I tried to highlight a different way to write information about a word. In each institution, I collected learners' notebooks after the fourth class to monitor if they understood how to use the notebook. Learners were not expected to enter all the information about a word at once, but rather gradually as their understanding of the word increased. For example, learners might enter just the L1 translation of a word they want to learn one week and enter the word's collocations, derivations, or phonetic transcription as their understanding of the word increases. In both classes I told learners what words from the textbook I wanted them to enter in their notebooks and encouraged them to enter additional words that they did not know.

5.2 The Style of the Notebook

Below are the types of information that learners could enter about words. The idea for the information to write in the notebooks came from Schmitt & Schmitt (1995) and McCulloch (2006). You can click here to see an student word sheet or click here to see a student entry in detail.
  1. L1 word
  2. L2 synonym
  3. Keyword method
  4. An image that reminds students of the word
  5. L2 word
  6. Part of speech
  7. Pronunciation in phonetic symbols
  8. Derivations
  9. Connecting words (Collocations)
  10. Sentence

6.0 Results -Answers to Questions 1 & 2

6.1 Question 1:Will learners use vocabulary notebooks, if yes, how so?

6.11 Answer to Part I

The answer to the first part is yes

6.12 Answers to Part II

To answer the second part of this question, I will share with you some of the results of a questionnaire done at the end of the semester and show you students' notebooks. In the following questionnaire, learners in both classes were asked to rate the frequency with which they wrote each piece word information and the usefulness of each piece of information. The original questionnaire can be viewed here.
How frequently students wrote each type of word information:
(Average, Standard Deviation)
Nursing School English Class

University Freshman English Class

Key:
5: Always
4: Frequently
3: Sometimes
2: Once or twice
1: Never

1

Japanese Word (4.18, 1.03 )

1

Japanese Word (4.6, 0.82)

2

Phonetic Symbol (3.1, 1.2 )

2

Part of Speech (4.3, 1.03)

3

Sample Sentence (2.89, 1.14)

3

Derivation (4.05, 1 )

4

Part of Speech (2.86, 1.06)

4

Sample Sentence (3.75, 1.25)

5

Collocation (2.76, 0.97)

5

Synonym (3.55, 1.15)

6

Synonym (2.68, 0.96)

6

Collocation (3.26, 1.59)

7

Derivation (2.57, 0.91)

7

Phonetic Symbol (3.15, 1.57)

8

Keyword or Picture (2.26, 0.72)

8

Keyword or Picture (2.74, 1.21)



How helpful students found each type of word knowledge
(Average, Standard Deviation)

Nursing School English Class

University Freshman English Class

Key:
5: Very Helpful
4: Helpful
3: I am not sure
2: Not very helpful
1: Useless

1

Japanese Word (4.2, 1.01)

1

Japanese Word (4.8, 0.52)

2

Phonetic Symbol (3.65, 1.04)

2

Derivation (4.55, 0.89)

3

Sample Sentence (3.56, 1.11)

3

Synonym (4.4, 0.94)

4

Synonym (3.51, 0.93)

4

Part of Speech (4.35, 0.93)

5

Part of Speech (3.42, 0.91)

5

Sample Sentence (4.05, 1.05)

6

Keyword Method (3.39, 1.12)

6

Collocation (3.9, 1.12 )

7

Derivation (3, 0.95 )

7

Keyword Method (3.88, 1.34)

8

Collocation (3.28, 0.95)

8

Phonetic Symbol (3.85, 1.14)

6.121 The Word Information Written Down will be Influenced by the Goal of the Class
Ranking of frequency of word Information and Helpfulness of word information depended on the goal of the class. In the nursing school there were many speaking exercises and writing exercises where students had to use the words they learned communicatively in a situation in the hospital. The contexts in which they used the words did not differ so much from the textbook. Thus it is logical that the top 3 useful and helpful pieces of information would be Japanese Word, Phonetic Symbol and Sample Sentence. In the freshman English class, there was a lot of in-class and out-of-class reading. In each chapter the textbook presented base words and their derivations (ex. Coincidence: coincidental, coincidentally). We spent a lot of time learning the derivations of the different words, writing them in essays and reading the essays to one another. Words and their derivations were also on tests.
6.122 The University Freshman Recorded More Word Information
The freshman English class wrote more information more frequently and they also found the information more helpful. This lends support to the hypothesis that the higher the level of the learner the more information about a word they are likely to record (Gu, 1994).
6.123 The Keyword Strategy was the least used
The key word technique was the least used technique by both classes and was not ranked as helpful as the other kinds of word information by either of the classes.This lends support to the findings by Nakamura (2002) and Schmitt (1997) that the keyword technique is not frequently used by Japanese learners. This is a little misleading though, as some learners made good use of the keyword method and other learners did not. Please click here to see how the learners used the keyword method.
6.124 Almost all entries had an L1 translation
This lends support to the finding that the most popular way of recording an L2 word is to note its meaning in the L1.
6.125 There was a lot of variation on how students used the vocabulary notebook.
As the semester progressed, students started to develop their own format for writing the vocabulary notebooks based on their own study preferences. Please click here for a demonstration.

6.2 Question 2What kind of word learning strategies might learners adopt through the implementation of vocabulary notebooks?

6.21 Vocabulary Learning Strategy Questionnaire: Description

To determine which of the studentsf vocabulary learning strategies might have changed during their use of vocabulary notebooks, students were asked to fill out a Questionnaire on Vocabulary Learning which was adapted from Nakamura (2002).

The questionnaire had six sections:

  1. What a learner does when encountering an unknown word.
  2. Dictionary Use Strategies
  3. Note Taking Strategies
  4. Repetition Strategies
  5. Memorization Strategies
  6. General Vocabulary Learning Strategies
Each section contained 8 - 10 strategies. Learners gave a rating of 1 - 6 based on whether or not they actually DID the strategy. Also, for each strategy learners were asked to rate how often they used a strategy now in university and how often they used it in high school. Below is a sample question from section 5, memorization strategies. It should be noted that the questionnaire was written in Japanese. A copy of the questionnaire can be see here.

5. When you memorize a new vocabulary item, what do you do aside from repetition?

Rankings
1.Never true
2.Rarely true
3.Sometimes not true
4.Sometimes true
5.Generally true
6.Always true

 

As a nursing student now

As a high school student

Never

true

Always

True

Never

True

Always

True

37. I create a clear mental image of the item or draw a picture.

1@Q@B@S@T@U

1@A@R@S@T@U

6.22 The Results from the Questionnaire

A Wilcox Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test was conducted to analyze the differences in the use of each vocabulary learning strategy during high school and university. The strategies listed below showed significant differences. The statistical results can be seen in detail by clicking here. It should be noted that the objective of using statistics here was not to say definitively which strategies changed but rather to get an idea of which strategies showed the most significant changes and then determine why this was so.
6.221 Table of the Results

Students Vocabulary Learning Strategies that might have Changed

(+) Students are more likely to use a strategy at the present.

(\) Students were more likely to use a strategy in high school.

Nursing School English Class

University English Class

Strategies when students meet a word they do not understand.

Strategies for using dictionaries

1. Use the prefixes and suffixes (unpleasant, treatable) of a word or its compound parts manhandle = man + handle) to guess its meaning.

Present: 3.25
HS: 2.86 (+)

11. Use a Japanese/English dictionary (apT).

Present: 4.5
HS: 3.95

3. Guess the meaning of a word from its context (topic of discourse, text structure, situation) with background knowledge.

Present: 3.75

HS: 3.37 (+)

17. Use a dictionary not just to know the meaning of the context in which it was found but also learn how a word is used in other contexts.

Present: 4.1

HS: 3.5

6. I ask my English teacher for the Japanese translation of the word.

Present: 1.97
HS: 2.78 (-)

Vocabulary Note-taking Strategies

7. I ask my English teacher for a synonym or paraphrase of the word.

Present: 2.02
HS: 3.34 (-)

18. Write words in a notebook designed exclusively for vocabulary.

Present: 5.15
HS: 3.9 (+)

How students use repetition when learning a vocabulary item

19. Use a section of their English notebook for English words.

Present: 3.47
HS: 4.6 (-)

36. During class, I repeat after my teacher when he says a word.

Present: 4.23

HS: 3.84 (+)

25. Write the part-of-speech as well as the Japanese translation of a word I do not know.

Present: 4.47

HS: 3.5 (+)

What students do apart from repetition when memorizing a vocabulary item:

What students do apart from repetition when memorizing a vocabulary item:

37. Create a clear mental image of the item or draw a picture.

Present: 2.71

HS: 1.89 (+)

37. Create a clear mental image of the item or draw a picture.

Present: 3.5

HS: 1.5 (+)

42. Learn the word in a sentence or within context.

Present:2.84

HS: 2.53 (+)

Students general word learning strategies:

43. Use the key word method (e.g. to select hosu as a keyword to form an acoustic link with the first syllable of the English word ghospitalh, and then create a mental image like byoin de sentakumono wo hosu as an imagery link.

Present: 2.61

HS: 1.59 (+)

47. Make use of a vocabulary notebook to study words.

Present: 5.3

HS: 3.5 (+)

48. Use the vocabulary list in the notebook to study words.

Present: 3.8

HS: 4.25 (-)

Students general word learning strategies:

49. Make use of the word list given by the teacher when studying words.

Present: 3.8

HS: 4.25 (-)

46. Use a memory schedule to plan their studying between English classes

Present: 2.89

HS: 2.53 (+)

47. Make use of a vocabulary notebook to study words.

Present: 4.12

HS: 2.94 (+)

50. I study new words with friends.

Present: 2.45

HS: 3.55 (-)

49. Make use of the word list given by the teacher when studying words.

Present: 4.64

HS: 4.07 (+)

 

 

6.222 Summary of Table: Changes in strategies students use when they meet a word they do not understand:
Nursing school students perhaps
6.2221 Changes in strategies for using dictionaries:
University freshman are perhaps
6.2222 Changes in Vocabulary Note-Taking Strategies:
University freshman are perhaps
6.2223 Changes in Memorization Strategies other than repetition
Both university freshman and nursing school students are perhaps
Nursing school students are perhaps
6.2224 Changes in General Word Learning Strategies
Both university freshman and nursing school students are perhaps
Nursing school students are perhaps
University freshman are perhaps
6.23 General Conclusions about the Change in Word Learning Strategies

7.0 Results - General Tips for Using Vocabulary Notebooks

Note to the Reader: This section will be better organized and easier to follow in the near future. Thank you for your patience.

7.1 Things to know before you start

7.2 Tips for using Vocabulary Notebooks in the Classroom

7.21 When Introducing the Vocabulary Notebooks

7.22 During and after the Introduction Period:

8.0 Issues for Further Investigation

9.0 Bibliography

Allen, V. (1983). Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Belgar, D. & Hunt, A. (1999) Revising and validating the 2000 Word Level and University Word Level Vocabulary Tests. Language Testing. 12(2), 131-162.
Fowle, C. (2002). Vocabulary notebooks: implementation and outcomes. ELT Journal. 56(4), 380 - 388.
Gairns R. & Redman, S. (1986). Working with Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gu, Y. (1994). Vocabulary learning strategies of good and poor Chinese EFL learners (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED370411) The article can be downloaded here.
Kim, S. (2002). Using Vocabulary Notebooks to Collect Words. ㏗w@ZwIv. 32, 93-102.
Leeke, P. & Shaw, P. (2000). Learnerfs independent records of vocabulary. System 28, 271-289.
McCarthy, M.J. Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCulloch, W. (2006). www.WORDSURFING.co.uk Vocabulary Book. Retrieved May 30, 2006, from http://www.wordsurfing.co.uk/WordSurfingBook.pdf
Nakamura, T. (2002). Vocabulary Learning Strategies: The Case of Japanese Learners of English. Kyoto: Koyo Shobo
Nation, I.S.P. (1990). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Saunders, B. (2002). Giving Learners Access to Vocabulary Enrichment. In P. Lewis. (Ed.) The Changing Face of Call. Tokyo: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, 109 - 122.
Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary Learning Strategies. In N. Schmitt & McCarthy, M. (Eds.) Vocabulary, Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy (pp. 199 - 227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Schmitt, N. & Schmitt, D. (1995). Vocabulary notebooks: theoretical underpinnings and practical implications. ELT Journal, 49 (2), 133-143.
Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D., & Clapham, C. (2001). Developing and exploring the behavior of two new versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test. Language Testing, 18(1), 55-88
Waring, R. (2002). Basic Principles and Practice in Vocabulary Instruction. The Language Teacher, 26 (07). Retrieved May 30, 2006, from http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/articles/2002/07/waring
Woolard, G. (2000). Collocation - encouraging learner independence. In Lewis, G. (Ed.) Teaching Collocation. (pp. 28-46). Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications.
FJގq. (20006). ɂbw. 25kpꋳw V|WE

10.0 Appendix 1: Student quotes about using vocabulary notebooks